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Problem Solving in Fruit Wine Making

When making fruit wine there is the possibility of encountering a few mishaps however this is very rare and most are recoverable.  Here is a guide to some common problems when making wine.

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Hazy Wine

There are a few reasons for this:

  • Pectin which is found in most fruits and can be cleared using Pectolase. Dissolve 1 level teaspoon per gallon in 1/2 cup of lukewarm water, add to must and shake/stir well. If used with heated or boiled fruits, add 2 teaspoonfuls per gallon (when cooled).
  • Wine is still fermenting move to a cool place and add Potassium Sorbate to stabilise. Also prevents fermentation after bottling which is essential.

Overly Sweet Wine

This could be due to adding too much sugar, there is a limit to how much sugar a yeast can tolerate and if that level is too high the resulting alcohol will kill the yeast. If you have reached the desired alcohol level of your recipe then you will have to mix your sweet wine with a similar dry wine to solve the problem .  The most common cause of sweet wine is a stuck fermentation (For more info see ‘Stuck Fermentation and what to do about it’ on this blog) and there are a number things to try to solve this:

  • Temperature: If this is too cool then the yeast will slow down or stop completely.  Bring the temperature back up to around 20 degrees and this will help to make the yeast active again.
  • Give the must a stir to add oxygen which will help kick start fermentation again.
  • Add nutrient to get the yeast going again especially vitamin B1, you can also add extra yeast to help this process along, then keep the must at room temperature to encourage fermentation.
  • Add a vigorously fermenting must. C.J.J. Berry author of First Steps in Winemaking recommends adding a cup full.

Lack of Body

Can be as a result of not using enough fruit adding grape concentrate often solves this, however it does also add sweetness. Body can also develop in the bottle over time so this is something to take into consideration.

Wine Tastes Flat

This is due to a lack of tannin so add 1 level teaspoonful per gallon to remedy.  It can be bought in tubs or you can use up to 1 tablespoon of strong tea per gallon of wine. Tannin also helps to preserve your wine.

Wine Lacks Bouquet 

When left in the bottles this often improves over time, you can also use malic and citric acid to improve the bouquet.  Something to note is that this can also be caused by a fermentation that is too rapid, it is best to have a steady fermentation where possible as the end result with wine or beer is a better quality brew. During winter heating pads and belts are ideal for this.

Oxidisation – Will discolour the wine giving it a brown tinge and may give it off flavours.

This effects white wine more than red wine as the colour pigments in the red wine act as an anti-oxidant, however it is important to prevent exposure in both types.  Oxidisation is caused by exposure to O2 after fermentation.  It isn’t a problem during fermentation and immediately after because of the amount of CO2 that is given off which fills the gap between the top of the fermenting bucket and the lid therefore preventing any O2 from coming into contact with the must. It also helps to force out any O2 already present in the must.

  • Adding an oxidised wine to a vigorously fermenting one of a harmonious type solves the issue. In First Steps in Winemaking C.J.J. Berry states that ‘the excess acetaldehyde is caught up in the fermentation process and reduced to alcohol with the aldehyde of the fermenting must’
  • Oxidisation can also occur if there is excessive splashing when transferring the brew from vessel to vessel or to the bottles so ensuring this is kept to a minimum also helps to prevent it.
  • It can also occur when bulk aging a wine, if you plan to do this it is best to transfer your wine to a smaller container so that there is no exposure to the air.  It should also be stored in a cool dark place as temperature and light play a role in oxidisation.
  • Adding Campden Tablets just before bottling or bulk aging also helps to prevent oxidisation.

Wine Smells Weird

Generally this is just the smell of the wine during and immediately after fermentation however there some smells to look out for which are not good news for your brew:

  • Smells like eggs: This is due to Hydrogen Sulphide which is caused by the fermentation process and occurs in all fermenting wines. This is not something to worry about and will dissipate after racking to a secondary vessel or transferring to bottles. However if a smell persists then Campden tablets or Potassium Metabisulphate will get rid of this and one or the other are usually required in most fruit wine recipes.
  • Mousey smell:  This is not good and means that the brew has been ruined by bacterial infection, the best thing to do is to throw it away and start again after thoroughly sterilising all the equipment you use.
  • Vinegar Smell:   If spotted early on you can prevent your wine from turning to vinegar by using campden tablets or Sodium Metabisulphate. These kill the bacteria which cause the vinegary taste and smell and ensure that they don’t get any worse.  The best way to prevent this entirely is to make sure your airlock doesn’t go dry, limit exposure to the air and add  1 crushed Campden tablet to each gallon of wine at the end of fermentation to prevent oxidation and bacterial contamination during bottling and syphoning, it also aids stability.

These are some of the most common issues you may encounter during wine making however as long as you sterilise your equipment, use the right yeast and ingredients and brew at the correct temperature you’ll be rewarded with a stress free fun experience which will result in some of the best wine you have ever tasted! Happy brewing!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adjuncts in Beer Making

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The adjuncts used are generally corn, rice, rye, oats, unmalted barley and wheat which are used in the mash to improve flavour, head retention, mouth feel and clarity. There are other adjuncts such as black teacle that can be added however the strictest definition of the word ‘adjuncts’ means anything that is added to the mash.

Adjuncts have been considered inferior due to their use in mass produced beer where they are sometimes used as a cheaper alternative to grain. The German purity laws were introduced in 1516 to ensure that ‘true’ beer contained only three ingredients water, barley and hops. These laws were followed in Germany right up to the twentieth century. However adjuncts are now recognised for the improvements they can bring to beer and are adding an edge to existing beer styles for example Oat Stout.

Here is a list of a few adjuncts and the qualities they add to a beer:

Oat: Is now a popular addition to stout as it adds smoothness and mouthfeel.

Rye: Another adjunct that is used for it’s distinctive flavour it adds a rustic, spicy character to beer and is used in Rye Pale Ale where it is substituted for part of the barley malt.

Rice: Not commonly used by home brewers. Budweiser use rice as they claim it creates the ‘snap’ in their beer. It also helps with colour when making lighter beers.

Wheat: An example of this that springs to mind is torrified wheat which is used in Belgian style ales to add body and head it is especially useful for this in English Ales as well.

Corn: Helps in brewing a beer that has a lighter flavour, body and colour. It is a popular adjunct in America and imparts a corn flavour to the beer which means it is good to use with lagers. 

Unmalted Barley: Adds flavour, richness and head retention. However it can contribute to chill haze so it isn’t used as an adjunct in lighter beers, hence it is ideal for Guinness.

This is just a brief guide to adjuncts but one thing which is important is to always use the correct ratio of adjunct to malted barley.

 

 

 

 

 

How to use a Hydrometer in beer making

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Original gravity reading taken in a trial jar.

The hydrometer is an essential bit of kit for the home brewer providing gravity readings which allow you to calculate ABV and measure when fermentation has finished. This is a guide to some of the terminology used and how to use the hydrometer.

Specific Gravity

Refers to the measure of your beers density as compared to water. There are a number of dissolved substances within the unfermented wort which contribute to it’s density, sugar is only one of them, other proteins are present and when using a hydrometer you are measuring all of them with your initial reading.

Original Gravity/Start Gravity

This reading is taken before fermentation it measures the density of the liquid giving the home brewer an idea of what their final alcohol level will be. However as mentioned above there are other unfermentable substances within the wort so it is only a rough guide to ABV. Generally a high original gravity reading around 1.060 means a denser liquid and therefore a higher content of fermentable sugars. The original gravity reading is taken before the yeast is pitched. Make sure all the sugars are dissolved in the liquid before taking this reading otherwise it won’t be accurate.

Original gravity readings for beer vary but as a rough guide they start at about 1.040 some stronger beers start higher, for example a hoppy IPA at around 1.060 will have a higher alcohol content than a beer that starts at 1.040 because there are more fermentable sugars in the 1.060 beer than the 1.040 beer.

This reading can be taken by using a trial jar as in the picture above or by placing your hydrometer directly into the fermenter, but before doing this you must thoroughly sterilise your hydrometer to prevent the introduction of any infections which may result in off flavours in your final beer.

Final Gravity

During fermentation all the fermentable sugars are eaten up by the yeast which produces CO2 and alcohol as by products. The CO2 escapes out of the liquid into the fermenter but the alcohol remains. Something to bear in mind while fermenting is that the CO2 forms a blanket over the top of the brew as it is heavier than O2. This protects your brew from any bacterial infection that would ruin your beer. However this only applies in the initial fermenter where the CO2 is trapped and an airlock is present preventing any introduction of O2, if transferred to a secondary vessel this introduces more O2 therefore reducing the effectiveness of the CO2 blanket.

Take the final gravity reading once fermentation is complete. Most malt extract kits contain instructions as to when to take a final gravity reading. You can then work out the ABV using the original gravity and final gravity readings. See equation and ABV calculator at the bottom of the page.

As with the Original Gravity reading this can be taken by placing your sterilised hydrometer directly in the fermenter or if you prefer you can use a trial jar.

How do I know when fermentation is complete?

The only way to be sure that fermentation has finished is to take two hydrometer readings over a 48 hour period, if the readings remain stable this means the brew has fermented, however if the readings change this means it is still fermenting and you will need to wait until they are stable before kegging or bottling. If a brew is bottled whilst it is still fermenting this can cause over carbonation resulting in a gushing beer or exploding bottles, however don’t let this worry you as this is a worse case scenario and can be easily avoided by following the procedure above.

Fermentables:

Refers to the amount of fermentable sugars present within the wort. These are gathered from starches, like grain, through the mashing process which converts starch to sugar or through non mashed sugars like fruit and honey.

Unfermentables:

Sugars with a complex build that cannot be broken down by yeast. These include roasted and dark caramel malts. These add sweetness, body and mouthfeel to your beer.

ABV Calculation:

Below is a link to an ABV calculator:

http://www.brewersfriend.com/abv-calculator/

For those of you who would like to do the maths here is the equation:

% Alcohol = ((1.05 x (OG – FG)) / FG) / 0.79 x 100

So if your OG = 1.045 and FG = 1.008 the equation would look like this:

((1.05 x (1045 x 1008)) / 1008) / 0.79 x 100

So this beer would be 4.9% alcohol. Here’s a link to the Stevenson hydrometer just in case you would like to take a look:

http://www.home-brew-online.com/equipment-c40/stevenson-hydrometer-with-trial-jar-case-p656

History of Beer

Wine – Stuck Fermentation and What to do about it

 

grapes

Signs of a stuck fermentation are no air bubbles through the airlock even when the lid is pushed down gently or there is no movement in your hydrometer reading.  However there are a few other things to check first to be absolutely sure your wine has stopped fermenting:

  • The lid of your fermenting vessel,  if this hasn’t created a seal CO2 may be escaping through the lid instead of through the airlock. So it could still be fermenting but with very little evidence of it.
  • The temperature may have fallen:  The ideal temperatures to brew wine at are between 21-26 degrees if it falls below this fermentation will slow down or stop completely.
  • Your wine may have fermented quickly and it may be that it has finished.  The only true way to know whether your wine is fermenting or not is with a hydrometer reading.

What causes a stuck fermentation and what to do about it?

  •  Lack of Sterilisation:  Yeast needs a clean environment so you can use sterilisers and sanitisers like VWP, Brewsafe and Starsan. These will ensure there is no bad bacteria to disturb the yeast.
  • Temperature: As mentioned above the temperature has to be correct, wine yeast likes it to be not too warm and not too cold, if it’s far too hot it may harm the yeast or possibly kill it. High temperatures can result in very lively fermentations. If your wine has cooled to 18 degrees fermentation may slow down or stop completely, bringing it back up to between 21 and 26 degrees will start fermentation again.
  • Oxygen:  Yeast needs oxygen to create a comfortable fermentation environment so giving your must a good stir can help kick start fermentation.
  • Use the correct yeast: If you’re making a wine kit use the yeast provided or if you are making a wine from scratch eg a fruit wine ensure that you use the right yeast for the right fruit.
  • Old Yeast: Using old yeast can mean that fermentation never started.
  • Specific gravity reading too high (1080 – 1090):  If there is too much sugar for the yeast’s ability this will cause a stuck fermentation.  Sauternes yeast can handle high levels of sugar and from the Gervin range GV7  can be used to kick start fermentation.  Another method is to water down your must to dilute the sugar down to the correct level.  Again a hydrometer reading can tell you whether you are at the right level.
  • Preservatives: These can be added unknowingly by using juice from the supermarket and many will kill off the yeast. Preservatives such as Potassium Sorbate effect the reproduction capabilities of the yeast and therefore stop fermentation.  Check the label before buying as preservative free juices are available.

Hope this helps and contributes to trouble free wine making!

A guide to Scrumpy/Cider

TUQ2UK6G75If you’ve been trawling the internet looking for a guide to scrumpy cider then look no further, this is a no nonsense guide to get you off to a flying start! Traditionally scrumpy is a cider made from scratch with apples and nothing else unlike some ciders which can have concentrated apple juice or sugar added, especially commercial ones where added sugar and water is often used. Scrumpy cider can get very technical so this guide aims to give you the basics to start your first batch.

A Brief Guide to Choosing your Apples

You’ll always need more apples than you think so collect as many as possible. You can also use a mix of different apples to produce different flavours so just go for it and experiment! Apples like Cox and Russett mixed with a very small quantity of crab apples make a good cider.  Usually a mixture of 90% sweet to 10% crab apples produces a quality cider.  Also don’t worry if any of the apples are bruised just throw them in too, however you will have to get rid of any rotten ones.

How to Store Your Apples

Sometimes you may have apples that ripen at different times and therefore you will need to store them.  You can store apples for around 2-4 weeks but they’ll need to be checked regularly to remove any rotten ones and storing them in a cool dry place is ideal.  It is not recommended to store them any longer than 4 weeks.  Traditionally it has been seen as necessary to store your apples for up to a month to make sure the apples are fully ripened before pressing, this ensures that all the starch in the apples has been converted to sugar to enable good fermentation. Generally they’re ready for pulping when you can press your thumb into the apple and the print is retained once your thumb is removed. A useful website to use is The Wittenham Hill Cider Pages there’s lots of useful advice and in depth knowledge which is very scientific and fascinating from the author Andrew Lea.

Recipe

Basic Equipment

Fermenting vessel

Airlock

Steriliser

Bottles

Campden tablets

Little bottler/auto syphon

There are also a couple of cider and scrumpy kits available with everything you need, depending on your budget, to start making your own scrumpy.

Scrumpy Making Equipment – The Beginners Complete Kit

 

Method:

Sterilise, sterilise, sterilise

This is the key to successful home brew. Make sure that all your equipment is thoroughly sterilised following the instructions of which ever steriliser you have.  Brewsafe  is a no rinse sanitiser which will save you loads of time and VWP is a steriliser which you will need to rinse.

Pulp your Apples

Gather your apples and give them a soak in clean water to get rid of any dirt and creepy crawlies, don’t worry, this won’t wash away any natural yeast as most of it is found inside the apples themselves, although it is true that some yeast does occur on the skin, we do supply cider yeast if required though. Then chop your apples into quarters which will make it easier to pulp them. A handy piece of equipment for pulping is our Quick Chop Pulper and Bucket seen here on the right.

Quick Chop Pulper
Classic Crusher

There is also the classic crusher shown here on the left which is suitable for larger amounts of apples. At this point before transferring to the press the juice and pulp will become brown in a matter of minutes and this is where the colour of your brew is determined.

 

Extracting the Juice and Fermentation

For smaller batches you can use a  kitchen juicer to break the apples down (although it is a time consuming method of extracting the juice), the liquid can then be transferred  to your fermenting vessel, once there you need to place it somewhere warm but out of direct sunlight.  It will then proceed to ferment naturally from the yeast that is found in the apples and on their skin and usually takes 2-3 weeks however it can take as long as two months! If you would prefer you can also add cider yeast at this stage a 5g sachet is sufficient for 23 litres (5 gallons) of juice. Signs of fermentation are gas bubbles escaping through the airlock, a bowed lid or sometimes a bit of froth on your juice.

Fermentation is complete once there are no more bubbles of gas escaping through the airlock or if you are unsure you can take two hydrometer readings; one when you think it has finished and then another  a couple of days later, if both readings are the same then fermentation is complete. If the second reading has dropped then leave for another 4 to 5 days and take some more readings until they become stable for two consecutive days before proceeding to the bottling stage.

9 Litre Spindle Press

If using a large amount of apples there are some great fruit presses from Vigo to help make the process easy. They vary in size and can handle different amounts of fruit for example the 9L spindle press shown in the picture holds up to 8kg of crushed fruit and produces up to 6 pints (3.5litres) of juice. Using any press you need to collect your pulp in a muslin bag and twist up any slack so it is tightly packed in and then press. Repeat this until all your apples have gone. Then just follow the fermentation process mentioned previously.

In order to get the best juice yield out of your apples add some water to the left over pulp, the Wittenham Hill cider guide recommends one or two litres of water to every 5kg of ‘broken up pommace before re-pressing’ this will be a bit weaker than your previous pressing but can be added to your overall juice. After that the fermentation process is the same as above, just transfer the juice to the fermenter and off it goes.

 

The Vigo Worktop Press:

A small and light design that will produce up to 3 pints (1.7 litres) of juice. I think it looks pretty good too and won’t clutter up the kitchen.sun apple tree

Did you know the gardening genius that is Monty Don used a Vigo press in an episode of Gardener’s World! He said; “The press has turned what was going to be a waste product – windfall apples-into fresh apple juice”

Bottling

Before bottling add a Campden Tablet to your brew this helps to prevent bacterial contamination, it’s usually one tablet per gallon. Also make sure that your bottles and bottling equipment are thoroughly sterilised.

Bottling can be very tedious and time consuming so I’d recommend using the little bottler or an auto syphon which makes bottling quick and easy. The budget option is a syphon tube andpinch valve which will do the job but not as efficiently.

If you would like carbonated scrumpy now is the time to add a teaspoon of  brewing sugar to a 500ml bottle, two teaspoons for a litre etc…  Priming drops are also available for this purpose and once again make your life much easier. I’d recommend adding one drop per 500ml bottle.

TIP: You need to use suitably strong bottles such as PET plastic bottles, glass beer bottles or glass swing top bottles. Glass wine bottles will not take the pressure!  These are our clear glass swing top bottles, perfect for adding that professional look.

Swing Top Bottles

Wait

Now all you have to do is wait for the scrumpy  to condition, the longer the better, I leave it for about 2-3 months before drinking, but if you can wait and leave it up to a year it’ll turn into a wonderful scrumpy.  Also at Christmas you can give it that festive flavour by mulling it and serving warm, yum!

 

Happy brewing!

Bottling Beer Tips

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Here are a few tips to make sure that your bottling process is smooth and incident free!

  • Always ensure fermentation is complete if it isn’t this can cause pressure to build up in the bottles as the CO2 has nowhere to go.  At the end of fermentation take two hydrometer readings 24 or 48 hours apart if the readings are the same then fermentation is complete and you are free to bottle, if not leave a little longer until the two readings are the same. When transferring to your bottles avoid any splashing as you would not want to oxidise your brew.
  • Priming your beer: It is important to get the right level of carbonation in your brew as it adds to mouthfeel and appearance.  Too much priming sugar will lead to  a very frothy beer and although a good head is nice this will be too much. We recommend
    carbonation drops
    Coopers Carbonation Drops

    no more than one carbonation drop or a heaped teaspoon of brewing sugar per 500ml bottle for lager and cider which will add more fizz than the one carbonation drop. For ale we recommend one carbonation drop, a level teaspoon of brewing sugar or for slight carbonation half a teaspoon. This priming sugar is a tasty treat for the remaining yeast in your brew which then produces CO2 and as seen as it has nowhere to escape to it instead carbonates your beer. Also leave a gap at the top to aid carbonation about 1″ to 1½”.

  • What else can I prime with other than brewing sugar/carbonation drops? A few suggestions are honey for honey beer, spraymalt; which one you use depends on the type of beer, for example you could use the light spraymalt with pale ale or an IPA. Whether using something other than white sugar actually alters the flavour of your beer is debated but if you’re feeling adventurous it’s something different to try.
  • Buy good quality bottles and that’s half the battle we sell 500ml brown and clear plastic bottles along with 500ml brown glass bottles. These are all high quality bottles perfect for storing your home brew. If using clear you would need to store your beer away from direct sunlight.
  • Use a little bottlerThese are simply a must when bottling they cut time and mess
    little bottler
    Little bottler

    down to a minimum.

  • Store your bottles in a cool dark place: This allows your brew to clear and prevents any damage caused by sunlight.
  • Allow your brew to condition: You can drink your beer a few weeks after it has been bottled and carbonation is complete however it will not be at it’s best.  Leave it for at least two months and you will be rewarded with a great tasting beer because the flavours will have had time to develop over a long period.
  • Happy Bottling!!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bog Myrtle (Myrica Gale) Beer

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Bog Myrtle in the Garden

Thousands of years ago when beer was first discovered people quickly realised it was too sweet to enjoy in any large quantity and as they had acquired a taste for alcohol’s intoxicating effects they needed to introduce a bitter taste to counteract the sweetness and therefore make it more drinkable.  This is where Bog Myrtle or Myrica Gale to give it it’s Latin name comes in, it was used along with other shrubs, plants and herbs instead of hops which started to be used in beer in the Tudor period, at one point in Britain hops were prohibited as it was thought they were a negative influence on true British beer. So you can produce your very own historic ale using this or plants such as nettles, sage, rosemary and heather and with a shortage of certain hops now is the perfect time to experiment so replace the hops in your recipe with the leaves and catkins (fresh or dried) from the Bog Myrtle shrub to add a unique flavour to your beer. It goes well with light coloured beers as the flavours compliment each other.

 

How to Grow Bog Myrtle

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You can grow Bog Myrtle from seed or from softwood cuttings but I cheated and bought mine at the garden centre.  It will look after itself and is a very hardy shrub as long as you have the right soil.  It can be found in places like the North York Moors so in order to grow this in your garden your soil will need to have a similar makeup. It thrives in poorly drained soil with either clay or loam.

How to make BeVino Wine – Forest Fruit

belvino

Hi guys, here’s a step by step picture guide to making BelVino Wine Forest Fruit.  I was impressed by the quality of the fruit you get and the smell of it as it ferments in the vessel is great! The first stage of fermentation takes about 5-6 days and then takes a further 4 days to add the clearing agent and then wait for it to settle before bottling.  But all will be explained in each stage below.

 

Equipment:

Ingredients: Found in the Bel Vino Forest Fruits

  • Dried fruit pack
  • 4kg brewing sugar
  • sachet 1e (enzyme)
  • sachet 1c (citric acid)
  • wine yeast
  • Sachet 1d (bentonite)
  • Sachet 2 (stabiliser)
  • Sachet 3 (finings A)
  • Sachet 4 (finings B)

Method:

  1. Sterilise all your equipment thoroughly. Place your fermenter in an area where any leaks or frothing won’t damage anything.
  2. Empty the dried fruit packet into the fermenting vessel followed by the sugar.IMG_1842    IMG_1840
  3. Add 3 litres of boiling water (not in glass fermenters) and stir to dissolve the sugar.IMG_1846    IMG_1854
  4. Add sachet 1e (enzyme) stir and then leave for one hour.IMG_1848   IMG_1844
  5. Top the fermenter up to 23 litres aiming for an end temperature of between 25-30 degrees
  6. Add sachet 1c (citric acid) and stir.IMG_1855
  7. Make sure everything is mixed together  and take a hydrometer reading. Ours was 1.060.  You don’t have to take a hydrometer reading at this point but if you do you can then work out the alcohol content with the final hydrometer reading at the end.IMG_1858
  8. Make sure that your brew temperature is not above 30 degrees (86F) then add the wine yeast.  If you add the yeast and your brew is too hot this could kill the yeast.  If your brew is too cool it won’t kill the yeast but the fermentation process will be slower or may not start at all. Sprinkle the yeast evenly over the surface.IMG_1859
  9. Then add  sachet 1d (bentonite) and leave  for 15 minutes. Once done mix well.
  10. Leave to ferment.  If you have an airlock do not use it as the fruit can block it up preventing the CO2 from escaping.  Just place a cloth over the airlock hole.

 

 

11. It should begin to ferment in 1 – 2 days in my case it was a vigorous ferment making lots of noise and bubbling like a witches cauldron! Leave it for 5-6 days between 22-25 degrees, the fermentation will be over when your hydrometer reading is consistent and below 1000 two days running.  The wine must have finished fermenting otherwise it will not clear due to the presence of CO2 in the brew.

vessel and bottler
Fermenting vessel and little bottler £14.50
IMG_1955
Using nylon straining bag and syphon tube to transfer liquid to another vessel.

12. Rack the wine off into another vessel. I usually rack off into a vessel with a tap and bottler to make the bottling process quick and easy. I used a nylon hop straining bag on the end of a length of syphon tube in order  to separate the fruit from the liquid.

13.Add stabiliser 2 and remove any CO2 from the liquid.IMG_1960  This can be done by vigorously stirring until all the gas has gone or you can use a wine degasser which takes all the time and effort out of this process.

14. Leave the wine for an hour and then degas again.  Once all the CO2 has gone add 3 finings A and stir it in for 30 seconds. Leave then until the next day.

 

15. Add 4 finings B the next day and stir in slowly for 30 seconds mixing up a bit of the sediment at the bottom with it.  Allow to clear for 1-2 days.

16. Once the wine is clear you can bottle it straight from the fermenter with the little bottler.  Leave for as long as possible to mature a month is good but two months is even better.  The longer you leave it the more it will improve.

17. Finally enjoy and happy brewing!!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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